As a new era of building energy-saving doors and windows, plastic doors and windows are more and more popular with people because of their inherent advantages. It provides favorable conditions for the promotion and popularization of plastic doors and windows. But people put forward higher requirements for it, not just limited to performance. Moreover, with people’s pursuit of personalization and colorization of life, they object to the traditional single white color of doors and windows. The simplification of color makes it difficult for plastic doors and windows to achieve harmony and unity with interior and exterior wall decoration in use, and weakens the performance of plastic steel doors and windows. Decoration ability. For this reason, colored profiles came into being, which not only beautifies the building, but also gives designers greater imagination, giving the interior decoration a more characteristic color background, and creating a warm environment for the houses.
At present, the four popular production methods for the production of colored doors and windows in the market are mainly: full-body coloring, two-color co-extrusion, laminating and spraying.
The main points of the above processing methods of the whole body method, co-extrusion method and spraying method are summarized as follows:
1. Whole body method (blending) color plastic door and window profiles:
The general method (blended) color plastic door and window profiles is a traditional method, but its application is declining. Its characteristics are as follows:
①The production of PVC profiles with one color is a very common manufacturing method for extrusion production. The production method is simple and easy, without special equipment, as long as the corresponding pigment (or masterbatch) is added to the PVC ingredients, the equipment investment is small, and at the same time Provide convenience for assembling doors and windows. Because the original color remains after the corner is cleared, the defect that the weld seam loses surface gloss after the corner clear can be compensated.
②Pigment is added together with the raw materials of each component during high-speed stirring. Under normal circumstances, the mixing effect can meet the requirements of the product.
③The waste materials from the profile and production line can be cleaned and recycled.
①The limited output is a shortcoming. Due to the characteristics of PVC profiles to assemble doors and windows, each series of doors and windows needs at least 6 types of profiles to be assembled into a finished product. Therefore, frequent mold replacement increases the consumption of raw materials, power, labor and other costs, and costs , The labor productivity rate is reduced.
②Cleaning of mixing system and extrusion molding system is cumbersome, time-consuming and labor-intensive.
③The pigment used in the manufacture of color profiles and the PVC base material components undergo thermal history and shearing. The pigment is required not only to have heat and light stability, but also to be resistant to HCL, so the selection of pigments is relatively harsh.
④The method of adding color paste to the exhaust port of the extruder to color the PVC profile. The addition of some color pastes will affect the thermal deformation temperature and flame retardancy of the product.
⑤When manufacturing color profiles, especially colors that meet customer requirements, you need to have corresponding process technicians, and you need to have color mixing devices or experimental methods, so that the company can have autonomy.
Since the color full-body profile is limited by the extrusion output, despite its simple production method and relatively small equipment investment, it still makes the market share decline. I believe that when the white plastic steel doors and windows dominate the world, the situation will gradually be broken. After doors and windows become the mainstream of decorating the city, color full-body profiles will rise again.
2. Co-extrusion of PVC profile and color surface layer
The co-extrusion technology of PVC profile and color surface layer is currently the most widely used PVC profile coloring method in China. Since 2002, the use of co-extrusion methods to produce color profiles has developed rapidly, accounting for about 40% of the color profile market, and it is expected to reach 60% in 2005.
While using co-extrusion technology to color white PVC profiles, it can also improve the weather resistance, heat resistance and impact resistance of PVC profiles and make the PVC profiles more glamorous and beautiful.
The selection of co-extrusion layer materials should follow the following principles:
• The co-extruded layer cannot reduce the physical and mechanical properties and processing properties of the PVC substrate, including secondary processing properties;
• The thickness of the co-extruded layer that can give the PVC substrate qualified weather resistance as small as possible;
• The MAX value of the co-extruded layer thickness cannot exceed 1/4 of the profile wall thickness;
• The balance between the co-extruded layer and the PVC base material.
The co-extrusion process needs to consider the properties of the co-extrusion material:
• The compatibility of the co-extrusion material and the substrate;
• The rheological properties of the co-extrusion material and the base material should be as similar as possible;
• The thermal expansion coefficient and shrinkage difference between the co-extruded material and the base material should be as small as possible.
The above conditions are used as the criteria for selecting polymer materials co-extruded with PVC. At present, PMMA and PVC are mostly used.
①PVC/PVC co-extrusion system:
The PVC surface layer co-extruded with the PVC base material is a different material from the PVC base material, but the same is PVC plastic, which is easier to meet the above requirements than other high polymers, especially the compatibility of the material, the rheological properties, Thermal expansion coefficient etc.
The focus of the formulation design of PVC surface layer should consider the requirements of extrusion process and die design that are different from the substrate formulation. For example, the filler in the surface layer will be much less than the base material, so the extrusion expansion effect during co-extrusion will be very different. At the same time, the rheological curve will be different, so the design of the co-extrusion die is more complicated than that of the ordinary extrusion die.
②PMMA/PVC co-extrusion system:
At present, the new modified PMMA materials of various international multinational companies (ATO of France, Mitsubishi of Japan, etc.) are available in the Chinese market, which means that the co-extrusion materials for high weather-resistant color plastic doors and windows in China have been fully upgraded, making PVC profiles not only weather-resistant And it has high impact strength.
The co-extrusion technology of PVC profiles has been developed in just one or two years since entering the 21st century, thanks to the development of the application field of polymer materials. The extrusion equipment includes extruder manufacturing technology and co-extrusion molds. The investment in research and development has made the originally complicated and difficult co-extrusion technology easier and easier to implement. Co-extrusion technology provides sustainable development opportunities for PVC profiles and plastic steel doors and windows, so that it can meet the growing and improving market needs in terms of physical and mechanical properties, internal and external quality of appearance effects.
3. Surface spraying of PVC profile doors and windows
Surface spray coloring is simpler and more flexible than the above two PVC coloring methods. It can not only spray PVC profiles, but also spray doors and windows without restrictions. This is not possible with other shading methods. Moreover, the appearance color effect (color and gloss) can be selected arbitrarily, but the current market share of PVC spray coloring is very low, only about 5% of the color profile. Analyze the reasons, roughly:
A. The domestic market lacks high-quality PVC paint production plants, and ordinary users dare not use paint for coloring.
B. When users have problems with the use of paint, they cannot get timely and effective technical support from the manufacturer, so that the most convenient and easy spray coloring is left out by the PVC profile industry.
Surface spray coloring is an older surface treatment technology, but it is used for hard PVC profiles with a new meaning: because it is easy to spray on the polymer surface, it is difficult to solve the adhesion of the spray coating on the surface of the PVC profile. The surface adhesion of the coating is an important guarantee that determines the life of the plastic steel doors and windows without falling off the coating. A few years ago, a fluorocarbon paint dedicated to PVC profiles came out in China. Its color variety and weather resistance can meet the requirements of use. However, important indicators such as adhesion and scratch resistance are not yet reassuring. Also at the beginning of the 21st century, the coating system produced by DuPont of the United States that was produced in China for the surface spraying of PVC profiles can not only solve the problem of poor adhesion (the paint film 1mm cross-cut test GTO does not peel off), but also make the PVC No primer is required for profile spraying. The spray pretreatment is simple and quick, and the cost is reduced. The coating has excellent weather resistance, high color fastness, tough paint film (pencil hardness 3H-4H), scratch resistance, etc., and at the same time, with its colorful colors, The elegant and pleasing decoration effect is commendable, and DuPont special coatings have begun to occupy the domestic market. The details of DuPont's special coating for PVC profiles are as follows:
① The special coating system for PVC profiles of American DuPont Company is a complete diversified coating system that has been successfully used in the European continent for many years, including the following components:
•Resin base material: Acrylic and polyurethane.
•Color masterbatch: 28 varieties in 10 series of red, orange, yellow, blue, green, white, black, purple, brown, and metallic colors.
• Curing agent: According to the curing time, it can be divided into three types: ordinary type, quick-drying type, and super-fast type.
• Thinner: 3 kinds of different volatilization speed.
•Adhesion promoter: It is specially used on the surface of PVC profile, which is a patent of DuPont.
• Smoothing agent: 1 kind.
Through the various combinations of the above color masterbatches, flattening agents and resins, up to 18,000 colors are formulated, with various gloss effects such as high gloss, gloss, semi-gloss, flat gloss and matt, and special surface textures for users to choose.
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